目前分類:多益上課講義分享 (39)

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這篇準備多益文法是寫給英文程度比較初階的同學看喔,如果你的英文程度已經具備中等以上的水準,這篇的內容就太簡單啦,拜託請去看老師寫的另一篇準備多益文章~多益準備攻略及推薦用書
不過如果你要當作復習老師也是很歡迎你繼續往下看滴!!

接下來的初級多益文法部分,雖然老師會用英文文法的專有名詞來講解,但同學完全不用去背(除非你要當英文老師),文法規則也千萬不要死記拜託拜託!!
 

同學們應該直接利用多閱讀來培養語感以及勤練多益題目來熟悉、準備文法,這樣不但能真正記牢,也才不會覺得學英文或準備多益是件枯燥乏味的事。
OK老生常談到此為止(但這是一定要有的準備多益觀念呀),以下開始多益文法講解!!


準備多益文法.png

 

準備多益文法Target 1 頻率副詞
什麼叫頻率副詞?就是補充動詞多久做一次~簡單舉例一下:我每天都大便大便是動詞,每天就是頻率副詞囉~

every day = daily 每天
every week = weekly 每週
monthly 每月
yearly = annually 年度
once a week 一星期一次
twice a month 一個月兩次
three times a year 一年三次
always = constantly 一直;總是
usually = generally = normally = routinely = often = regularly = frequently = repeatedly 常常
sometimes 有時候;偶爾
seldom = rarely = infrequently 不常;幾乎沒有(有否定的意味)
never 從未

 

準備多益文法頻率副詞.jpeg

準備多益文法頻率副詞2.jpg

 

準備多益文法Target 2 不定詞(to Vr.)/動名詞(Ving)
簡單的區分法~表達未來目標,也就是之後才打算要做的事用to Vr.(原型動詞);表達持續的習慣、事實,一直都有的狀態用Ving~
老師強烈建議同學們還是靠大量閱讀來記憶這些習慣用法,硬背沒有用,有時候用這種方法判斷不一定對,只能當做參考。

●搭配to Vr.的動詞:
try 嘗試
seem 似乎
appear 似乎,看來好像
agree 同意
offer 提供
ask 要求
hope 希望
would like 想要
intend 打算
expect 期望
plan 計畫
want 想要
decide 決定
need 必須
promise 承諾
pretend 假裝
attempt 試圖
learn 學習
refuse 拒絕
例句:We’re planning to visit New York this summer.
(我們打算今年夏天走訪紐約。)

●搭配Ving的動詞:
enjoy 享受
suggest 建議
admit 承認
discuss 討論
mind 介意
appreciate 欣賞
dislike 不喜歡
miss 想念
quit 戒
avoid 避免
enjoy 享受
permit 允許
admit 承認
discuss 討論
mind 介意
recommend 推薦
can’t help 忍不住
finish 結束
postpone 延遲
risk 冒險
consider 認為
keep 保持
practice 練習
例句:Let me know when you finish typing this project.
(你完成輸入這個項目時告訴我一聲。)

準備多益文法不定詞動名詞.jpg

多益文法圖片資料來源:
https://www.pinterest.com/vecttra/gerund-and-infinitive/

 

準備多益文法Target 3 使役動詞
規則不難,去判斷使役動詞的受詞與後面接的動詞之主被動關係!!主動就是原型動詞;被動則為過去分詞。
是的,老師知道這句話很像繞口令,看不懂中文描述沒關係,讓我們直接看例句就可以弄懂了:

I let my secretary ____ the meeting schedule for me.
(A)to arrange (B)arranging (C)arrange (D)arranges
題目中譯為:我請我的秘書替我安排會議行程。
受詞是秘書(人),人去安排(動詞)會議行程,所以動詞型態正確要選原型(C)arrange

The contractor had the equipment ____ last night.
(A)shipped (B)shipping (C)was shipped (D)ships
題目中譯為:承包商昨晚把設備拿去運送了。
受詞是設備(物品),物品是被運送(動詞),所以動詞型態正確要選過去分詞(A)shipped

總之,中文語意就是「讓……(受詞)去……(動詞)」→受詞是人就接原型動詞;「把……(受詞)被……(動詞)」→受詞是物品則接過去分詞。

你看,真的不用去背文法名詞也可以弄懂的好嗎!?(←就算被嫌囉嗦老師還是要強調,喔呵呵)所以不要那麼害怕多益文法呀~!!

準備多益文法使役動詞.jpg

多益文法圖片資料來源:
https://aliciateacher2.wordpress.com/

 

準備多益文法Target 4 假設語氣
假設語氣就是表達「與事實相反」的語氣,因此藉由動詞時態的改變來表達。
多益常考的假設語氣文法有三種:

●與現在事實相反(對現在假設):
If + 過去式, would + 動詞原型
例句:If I had enough money, I would buy a car.
(假如我有錢的話,我就要買一台車車→表示現在是個窮鬼)

●與過去事實相反(對過去假設):
If + had + 過去分詞, would/ should/ could/ might + have + 過去分詞
例句:If you had told me about the problem, I would/ should/ could/ might have helped you.
(假如你當初有告訴我這個問題,我就可以幫你啦→表示之前沒講)

●對未來假設:
If + 現在式, will + 動詞原型
例句:If I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.
(假如我明天沒吃早餐的話,上課時間我會肚子餓的→兩件事都還沒發生,但未來有可能發生)


準備多益文法假設語氣.jpg

 

準備多益文法Target 5 比較級與最高級
灰熊甘丹(請用台語發音)!!概念就是兩者間的比較使用比較級;兩者以上使用最高級~比較級一定有than(前方形容詞字尾+er,三個音節以上的字在前面+more),最高級一定有the出現(後面形容詞字尾+est,三個音節以上的字在前面+most)!!

●比較級例句:
Jenny told me she would rather work the day shift than night.
(Jenny跟我說她寧願排早班也不要晚班。)

●最高級例句:
Of all my classmates, Doris is the most independent one.
(我的所有同學裡面,Doris是最獨立的一個。)

是不是灰熊甘丹!!真的是多益考到賺到!!

 

準備多益文法Target 6 關係代名詞
把重複相同字詞的兩個句子(有交集的兩個句子)結合成一句話,減少多餘跟累贅,將第二個字詞化為先行詞(前面相同的那個字詞)的關代,身兼代名詞與連接詞的角色,關鍵字有:who, whom, whose, which, where = in which, that

例如:
For a boyfriend, I’m looking for a man.(我想找個男人當男朋友。)
He is tall, rich, and well-educated.(他要身材高、收入高、學歷高。)

用關代整合這兩句:
For a boyfriend, I’m looking for a man who is tall, rich, and well-educated.

不好意思,這個例句內容真是太膚淺了哈哈哈哈哈~~~老師自己都覺得羞恥,隨便舉例的,不代表本人立場!!

多益文法上課講義將關代整理成表格給同學看看:

準備多益文法關係代名詞.JPG

 

準備多益文法關代.png

 

今天的多益文法就上到這裡,同學們下課啦~~~!! 掰!!
 

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常考的副詞(片語 (綜合句子副詞與動詞/述部副詞)

 

分類

譴詞用字

頻率
副詞

總是/老是always, all the time, at all times
不斷地constantly      通常usually
經常(more) often (than not), frequently, many a time

曾經once, ever, at one time
最後一次/一勞永逸once and for all
第一/最後一次for the first/last time

有時候sometimes, at other times, at times, from time to time, off and on, on and off
偶而from time to time (亦表因時間之不同), occasionally, once in a while
一再地repeatedly, again, over and over (again), time after time

時間
副詞

暫時for the time being, tentatively, temporarily
/之前formerly, earlier, previously
早期/那時期in early days/times, in those days
古時候in ancient times
事先in advance, beforehand, ahead of time
大都是mostly, most of the time
隨著時間逝去with/over time, as time goes by
日復一日day in day out, day after day
每日地from day to day, day by day
到了時候by…, by the time+子句

近來recently, lately, these days
以前once upon a time, long ago (and far away), in the past,
未來in the future 
遲早sooner or later  
永遠for good, forever 
()先於prior to
前幾天the other day
有朝一日someday, one day (有一天)
從那時:since (adv)

全天地:day and night, around the clock
現在/目前now, nowadays, at present, currently, for now, contemporarily (當今)
迄今so far, up to now, until/till now, to this day, to date, as yet
立刻/in no time, immediately, right away, right now, at once, instantly

其他

大約:about, around, …or so, approximately 
個別地:individually 
分別地:respectively
正式地:formally, officially 
精神上:spiritually 
故意地:deliberately
相對地:relatively 
典型地:typically 
傳統上:traditionally
誤認地:mistakenly 
定期地:regularly 
嚴重地:severely, seriously
莊嚴地:solemnly, spectacularly
慷慨地:generously 
密切地:closely 
鬆弛地:loosely 
急遽地:drastically, abruptly, sharply 
和諧地:harmoniously 
無異議地:unanimously 
奸猾地:cunningly 
拼命地:desperately

可有可無地:optionally 
廣泛地:extensively, widely 

到處:everywhere, here and there, far and wide/near, 
   ubiquitously

藉著:by, by means of 
上下地/來回地:up and down 

來回地:back and forth, backwards and forwards, to and fro, 
    from one side to the other

白費地:in vain 
從頭至腳:from head to foot, from top to toe 
從頭至尾/完全地:from top to bottom, from start to finish

聯合/結合:in conjunction with, in association with,
     in combination with

代表:on behalf of 
適合/配合:in keeping with 
一致:in accordance/agreement with 

當場:on the spot, on the scene, right there 
疑慮地:suspiciously

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 資料來源: 內湖高中

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轉承詞

 

轉承詞 (1)

 

 

 

分類

譴詞用字

立場

基本上basically

原則上in principle

一般而言generally (speaking) (=in general), 
     by and large, all in all

觀點in terms of, in one's opinion
正常而言normally

逐點
列述

首先first(ly), first of all, in the first place, to begin with 
其次second(ly), in the second place
進而/接著further(more), in turn
最後finally, eventually, lastly, at last, in time, at length, in the end,
   in the long run

起初in the beginning, at first, initially
以及and, also, as well as (除了 
此外in addition, additionally, besides
再者moreover       還有still
最後重要的是last but not least
或者:or, alternatively

一方面,另一方面on the one hand, on the other hand; for one thing, for another
這一方面…, 另一方面in one respect, in another  註:in one aspect or another (某方面而言)
某些方面…, 某些方面in some ways, in others
除了in addition to, besides, on top of, apart from, aside from (cf. 例外except for)

結論
語氣

因此therefore, thus, accordingly, hence
結果as a result/consequence, in consequence, consequently

所以so, so that-子句, so as to+V
大體上而言on the whole , by and large
總而言之all in all, altogether

/簡而言之to sum up, in summary/conclusion, in a word, in short/brief, to be short/brief, (to put it) in a nutshell,
       to put it simply

表例證

例如say, for example, for instance, Take…for example 
諸如/such as, like, as with, unlike (不像)
()/如同(just) as

像是如此as such
等等and so on, and the like, and such like, etc.
依據according to, based on, on the basis of

時間序

後來later on, afterwards, subsequently        
不久soon, shortly, before long, by and by
之後不久soon/shortly afterward(s), 
之後in the wake of
此後hereafter, henceforth, henceforward
那時候then, at that time, at the time

到了那時候by then
從那之後ever since
()as of, as from, from, since
…/那時/現在起 from…/then/now on
此時in the meantime, meanwhile, at this time 
同時at the same time, simultaneously

話題
轉換

關於with/in regard to, with respect to, concerning, regarding, in reference to, in/with relation to (或相對於 
   註:in connection with, have …to do with (有關)
而言/至於for…, as for…, as to…, as/so far as …go(es)/be concerned
提及when it comes to N./V-ing, speaking of…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

轉承詞 (2)

 

分類

譴詞用字

加重
語氣

特別/尤其是in particular (=particularly), especially, above all, what's more
當然/的確是 certainly, sure(ly), for sure/certain, of course, by all means, indeed (著實) 
無疑地undoubtedly, no/without doubt, unquestionably, indubitably, undeniably (無可否認)
無論如何anyway, at any rate, in any case, by all means--肯定句用 (務必)
不管/不論regardless of/irrespective of, without regard/respect to, without considering
/更重要的是most (important) of all, most importantly, more importantly
主要地primarily, mainly, in chief (=chiefly), mostly

專門地specifically
精確地exactly, precisely  
明顯地obviously, evidently
顯著地remarkably 
真實地really, truly
/最糟的是 what's worse, worst of all
如此/以此方式(in) this way
right

難以相信地unbelievably, incredibly
確實是definitely

必然地inevitably
依舊/仍然still
一旦once
甚至even 
不用說needless to say
未必/非真的not necessarily, not really

比較
、對比

一樣地similarly, likewise, equally
相同地in the same way不同地:differently
一樣in common with                     
比較之下in comparison with…
如往常as usual
also, as well, too, either (也不)

例外except (for), apart/aside from
相對地in contrast (to/with), by contrast
然而however, while/whereas, (and/but) yet 
但是but
並非/而不是instead of, rather than         
否則or, otherwise, alternatively (或另…)

相反地instead , on the contrary (表不認同), the other way round, to the contrary (相反的事), 
    contrary to… (相反另一方面/相反地:conversely, on the flip side

讓步語

即使in spite of, despite, even if/though
縱然如此nonetheless, nevertheless, though
頂多/最多at best, at most

雖然although, though, while 
畢竟after all
至少 at least      註:at worst (最差)

原由

因為/由於because of, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result/consequence of, in consequence of, on account of
鑑於in view of, considering, in (the) light of
為了緣故/原因for the sake of, for reasons of 
為此原因for this (reason), on this account

目的

為了in order to+原形V/that-clause, with a view/an eye to N/V-ing, for the purpose of 
為此目的:to this end 
為了安全緣故to be on the safe side (期望in the hope of/that-子句)

解釋

事實上actually, in fact/truth, as a matter of fact  
/這樣的話in that/this case                 
換句話說in other words, to put it another way   

也就是說 that is (to say), namely, i.e.
在這方面in this aspect

分類

譴詞用字

其他

也許/大概maybe, probably
可能possibly, likely
似乎是apparently, seemingly
不知為何somehow
恰巧地by accident (=accidentally), by chance

逐漸gradually, little by little
()幸運地(un)fortunately, (un)luckily
順便提及/附帶一提by the way
但願/希望hopefully
無望地hopelessly, in despair

 

 


動狀語轉承詞

 

 1) judging by/from…(判斷)  

 

 2) talking/speaking of…(提及)

 3) considering/given (考慮到;就而論)

 

 4) concerning (關於)

 5) seeing that-子句 (鑒於)

 

 6) suppose/supposing; assuming (that);providing/provided (that) (= if 如果)

 7) strictly speaking (嚴格地說

 

 8) generally speaking (一般而言)

 9) roughly speaking (概略地說)   

 

10) broadly speaking (廣義言之)

11) frankly speaking (坦白說)            

 

12) honestly speaking (實話說)

13) relatively speaking (相對而言)

 

 

14) to be honest (with…) (老實說)  

 

15) to tell the truth (說實話)

16) to be frank with you (坦白說)

 

17) to begin with (首先)

18) to sum up (總言之)  

 

19) to conclude (總言之)

20) to do sb justice (平心而論)

 

21) to illustrate (舉例印證)

22) to be specific (具體地說)

 

23) to make a long story short (常話短說)

24) to be brief/short (簡言之)

 

25) to put it simply (簡言之)

26) simply put (簡言之)

 

27) needless to say (不用說)

28) strange to say (說也奇怪)

 

29) sad to say (不幸的是)

30) that is (to say) (也就是說)

 

31) all things considered (綜觀之;通盤考量)

32) as…put it, (人所言)

 

33) Take…for example. (例如…)

 

 

資料來源: 內湖高中

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子句連接詞 that

 

1.

引導名詞子句:[that +S+V…] 當主要子句之主詞、受詞、補語

 

1. We discovered (that) he told a white lie. (當動詞discover之受詞—that可省略) 
2. We are sorry (that) he told a white lie. (當形容詞補語—that可省略)
3. That he told a white lie is obvious. (be動詞is的主詞that不可省略)
4. It is obvious/Chances are (that) he told a white lie. (當主詞it/chances補語—that可省)

 

 

2.

引導同位語子句:等同所解釋之同位語,

 

fact, information, knowledge, evidence, discovery, report, rumor, belief, hope, fear, promise, guarantee, announcement, allegation, suggestion, proposal, possibility等。(註:此that不是關代詞。)

 

1. We found out (the fact) that he told a white lie. (that經常不省略) 
2. (The fact) that he told a white lie is understandable. (the fact 可省略,that不省略)
3. His parents reduced his allowance due to the fact that he did poorly on exams.

 

 

3.

關係代名詞/關係副詞:who/which/where/when/why/how 皆可以that代替。

 

1. The waiter (who/that) I complained about was laid off.
2. The coverage which/that concerns the event is found online.
3. Who is the greatest man that's ever lived?
4. I still remember the date (when/that/on which) we first met each other.
5. I don't know any place (where/that/at which) you can find an i-Pod.
6. The reason (why/that/for which) I missed out the fun was that I forgot it started at 6:00.
7. The way (how/that/in which) she laughs is weird.
  How she laughs is weird.

 

 

4.

結果子句so/such … that 與表目的in order that

 

1. It is so noisy a place (that) I can't hear you. (= too noise for me to hear you.)
2. Last Sunday was such a chilly day (that) we decided to stay home.
3. We need to ask for a wake-up call in order that/so (that) we may see the sunrise.

 

 

名詞子句連接詞that 不可省略的位置-- (動詞前) 主詞位置。

 

 

 

句法功能字 -- 虛詞it  (名詞子句、不定詞片語、動名詞片語「後移」之分身)

 

1.

指涉(後移的)that-/wh - 名詞子句,或 ifwhen副詞子句

 

 

 

1. That Jack's dog died left him depressed. (o)
   It left Jack depressed that his dog died. (o)
2. Whether a movie will be a hit or not depends on the cast and director. (o)
   It depends on the cast and director whether a movie will be a hit or not. (o)
3. The host thought a pity that so few people came. (x)
  → The host thought it a pity that so few people came. (o)  (that不省略)
4. How strange it is that nobody is here!
5. If you plan in detail before going on a trip, it helps you to avoid unexpected trouble.

 

 

2.

指涉「後移的」不定詞片語

 

 

 

1. To teach is a pleasure. (o) 
   It is a pleasure to teach. (o)
2. The cell phone makes to communicate on the move possible. (x)
  → The cell phone makes it possible to communicate on the move. (o)

 

 

3.

指涉「後移的」動名詞片語 (主詞/受詞較長者移至補語之後,it補原主詞/受詞遺缺)

 

 

 

1. Making new friends is not easy. (o) 
   It has been nice talking to you. (o) 
2. You will find working here exciting. (o)
  → You will find it exciting working here. (o)

 

 

 

註:

1).

片語make (it) clear that-子句,但 bear in mind that-子句

 

 

1. The president made (it) clear that he was not stepping up the tension.
2. Please bear in mind that you are not alone.

 

2).

以下是較普遍的用法:

 

 

甲、Keeping our promise is important.  (動名詞當主詞,不使用it)
乙、It is important to keep our promise.  (不定詞使用虛詞it)
丙、It is important that we (should) keep our promise.  (名詞子句使用虛詞it)

 

 

 

4.

分裂句 it…that…  (詳見分裂句單元)

 

 

 

例:It is not work that kills, but stress.  (憂慮嚴重於辛勤。)

 

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比較級:-er/more…than  (S1  S2 …)

 

名詞片語

S1+ V1

 
 
 

 

more + 不可數單數/可數複數名詞 + than~~更多 86聯考)
fewer + 可數複數名詞 + than~~更少 88推甄,86聯考)
less (更多) + 不可數單數名詞 + than ~~更少

 
 
 

 

+ S2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. She's collected more/fewer CDs than her sister (has). (她收集的CD她姊姊/。)
2. Each day, I drink more/less coffee than my boss (does). (我每天喝的咖啡老闆/。)

 

 

 

形容詞片語

S1+ V1 +

 
 
 

 

形容詞 -er/more + 形容詞 than (比 ~  ~ 

less + 形容詞 + than (比 ~ 更不 ~ 

 
 
 

 

+ S2 95學測,93指考/學測,88/86聯考)

 

 

 

 

 

 

例:The weather is not hotter in the north than (it is) in the south. (北部的天氣不南部。)

 

 

 

副詞片語

S1+ V1 more/less + 副詞 + than  + S2 (比~/更不~  (副詞修飾一般動詞)

 

 

 

 

 

例:The robot walks more/less steadily than a man (does). (這機器人走路/不穩。)

 

 

註:later (晚點/後來) vs  latter (後者) –89推甄little () less (較少) least (最少/最不)—88推甄

 

 

 

同級比較句型: as……….. as    (S1  S2一樣的…)

 

名詞片語

S1+ V1 +

 
 
 

 

as + many (+可數複數名詞) + as  ~ ~ 一樣多)
as + much (+不可數單數名詞) + as 92學測,87推甄,85聯考)

 
 
 

 

+ S2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. She's collected as many CDs as her sister (has). (她收集的CD她姊姊一樣多。)
2. Each day, I drink as much coffee as my boss (does). (我每天喝的咖啡老闆一樣多。)

 

 

 

 

 

* 可數單數名詞用法:S1+ V1 + as + 形容詞原級 + a(n) +可數單數名詞 + as + S2 … 

 

 

  例:The screenplay is as interesting a story as the actual event. (這劇本真實故事一樣有趣。)

 

 

 

 

 

註:as many/much as + 數量 = up to + 數量(有 ~ 之多/多達 ~
  例:As many as (=Up to) 10 passengers were injured in the accident. 多達10位旅客在事故中受傷。)

 

 

 

形容詞片語

S1+ V1 + as + 形容詞原級 + as + S2 (一樣的 ~ 85推甄)

 

 

 

 

 

例:The weather is not as/so hot in the north as (it is) in the south. (北部天氣不像南部那麼。)

 

 

 

副詞片語

S1+ V1 + as + 副詞原級 + as + S2 (一樣的 ~  (副詞修飾一般動詞)

 

 

 

 

 

例:The robot walks as steadily as a man (does). (這機器人走路一樣地穩。)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

常考之片語,及比較級/最高級「修飾語」

 

1.

nothing more than (=nothing/all but) 只是91學測)nothing less than儼然是~

 

例:It's nothing more than a joke(只是個笑話)/nothing less than a trick. (儼然是惡作劇)

 

 

2.

修飾比較級--
(1)
~些:any 90學測), even 95/94指考,86聯考), still 
(2)  ~
的多:much/a lot/(by) far/a great(good) deal/considerably 90學測) 
(3)
有點 ~slightly/a bit/a little/somewhat

 

 

 

1. Are you feeling any better? (你感覺更好些了嗎?)
2. The rich ecology brings even more surprises for visitors. (豐富生態為觀光客帶來更多驚喜。)
3. Chinese is considerably more difficult to learn than English. 中文比英文難學的多。)

 

 

3.

修飾最高級:by far84推甄), the very + 最高級。

 

例:This model is by far the newest design.  (此款絕對是最新穎的設計。)

 

 

4.

(a) few/many+more+可數N 84聯考)(a) little/much+more+不可數N

 

例:We have a few more minutes before the meeting starts. (會議開始前,我們還有幾分鐘多時間。)

 

倍數

 

倍數的三種表達法 (下列用法皆是置於S + V 之後)
(1)
 比較級倍數 + adj/adv比較級 + than 
(2)
 同級比較倍數 + as + adj/adv原級 + as …  90學測)
(3)
  ~ 倍數 + NP
  (1) (2) adj 需轉換成 (3) NP
   old → age, heavy → weight; big → size; high →height; much → amount/sum/what-子句等。

 

 

1.

He is almost three times heavier than his girlfriend. (他比她女朋友重三倍。)
= He weighs almost three times
 as much as his girlfriend.
= He is almost three times
 his girlfriend's weight.

 

 

2.

She earns ten times more than he used to. (她的收入比以前多十倍。)
= She earns ten times
 as much as he used to. 
= She earns ten times
 what he used to.

 

 

註: by + 倍數。例:The sales have increased by five times this year.

 

twice half 分數與同級比較as … as連用居多。

 

 

註:twice 亦可接名詞。

 

1. I work twice as hard as you.
2. A morbidly obese person may weigh about twice as much as a slim person.
3. I paid half as much for the meal as they did.
4. We have a third as many students in our class as we had last term.

 

註:

其他含比較數字之類似結構。
1. He is ten years older/younger than us. (=He is older than us by ten years.)
  = He is ten years our senior/junior. (=He is my junior/senior by ten years.)
  (He is junior/senior to me by ten years./He is ten years junior/senior to me. → 口語用)
2. The grain output is 8 percent higher this month than that of last month.

 

 

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最高級句型 (以下1—2名詞片語須用the3. 形容詞片語不用the/副詞片語常省略the

 

1.

the + 最高級 + of + the群體/in + 場所 ( ~ 之中/ ~ 裡,最 ~

 

 

 

例:Jupiter is the biggest of all the planets. (土星是行星中最大的。)
  = Of all the planets, Jupiter is the biggest.
例:This is the most popular hotel in this town. (這是城裡最有人氣的旅社。)

 

 

2.

~ be

 
 
 

 

(現在式)
(
過去簡單式

 
 
 

 

+ the + 最高級

 
 
 

 

that ~ have/has/ ever + V-p.p. …  (現在完成式) 
that ~
 ever + V-p.t./had ever V-p.p. …  (過去式/完成

 

 

            (所曾經 ~ 之中,最 ~

 

 

 

1. This is the strangest fish that I have ever seen. (至目前,我所見過的魚當中,最奇怪的。)
2. It was the funniest joke that I (had) ever heard. (當時,我所聽過的笑話當中,那是最有趣的。)

 

 

3.

形容詞/副詞片語:

 
 
 

 

形容詞/副詞-est (最 ~
most
(最~/least(最不~+ 形容詞/副詞  most + 副詞--88推甄)

 

 

 

 

1. Our boss is most generous (形容詞) when we get a big order. (獲大訂單時,老闆最慷慨。)
2. Jenny speaks English (the) most/least fluently (副詞). Jenny英文說得最/最不流利。)

 

 

 

the + last + N  (= the least likely)  最不可能的 ~ 92指考)

 

例:John is the last person I would marry. John是我最不可能結婚的對象。)

 

 

~  (in the same way)  as  ~  (如同 ~;像 ~ 一樣) 86聯考,84推甄)

 

例:Do as you would be done by. (善待別人,如同你想被對待的一樣己所欲,施於人。)

註:As (he was) a child, he took interest in movies. (小時候,他對電影感興趣。)as-~時候—94學測)

 

 

資料來源: 內湖高中

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1. 複合形容詞主要型態表 (Compound Adjectives) -- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 一般考試較常考!
   
 
分類 結構 (pattern) 舉例 衍生舉例
動狀詞 *1. 受詞-動詞 ing
(主動含意)
fun-loving (喜歡樂的), heart-warming (溫馨的), time-consuming (耗時的), ice-breaking (破冰的) love fun. →
fun-loving person
*2. 動作者-動詞 p.p.
(被動含意--by)
snow-capped (雪覆蓋的), time-proven (時間驗證的), love-filled (充滿愛的), sundrenched (日照強烈的), state-run (國營的), drought-stricken (受旱災的) The mountains are capped by snow. →
snow-capped mountains
*3. 副詞-動詞 p.p.
(被動含意)
well-educated (教育良好的), well-known (著名的), newly-built (新蓋的), new-found (新發現的), newborn (新生的), 註:well-behaved (行為好的) He is well educated. →
well-educated man
*4.

形容詞-動詞 ing
(主動含意)
top/high-ranking (高階的), sweet-smelling (聞起來甜的), 
nice/gruff-looking (好看的/看起來粗獷的)
He looks nice. →
nice-looking man
*5. 副詞-動詞 ing
(主動含意)
hard-working (努力的), best-selling (暢銷的), far-reaching (遠播的),
fast-moving (移動快的), fast-changing (迅速改變的), long-lasting (持久的)
He works hard. →
hard-working man
名詞
當擬似
過去分詞
6. 名詞-名詞 ed self/student-centered (自我中心的/以學生為中心的), pig-headed (愚蠢的)
*7. 形容詞-名詞 ed
(表身心行為)
warm-hearted (熱情的)/strong-willed (意志堅強的) 85推甄, good/ill-mannered (有/無禮的), 
kind-hearted (仁慈的), absent-minded (心不在焉), light-headed (頭暈的), hot-headed (急性的),
bare-handed (徒手的), near-sighted (近視的), long-haired (長髮), high-spirited (高興),
heart-shaped (心形), big-sized (大尺寸)
註:副詞-名詞ed → well-intentioned (好意的) 85推甄, well-rounded (全能的)。
純名詞與
形容詞
8. 形容詞-名詞 part/full-time (兼/全職的), long-distance/haul (長途的), long/short-term (長/短期的),
large-scale (大規模的), first-rate/class (一流的), high-quality (高品質的)
9. 名詞-形容詞 health-conscious (注重健康的), world-famous (舉世聞名的), island-wide (全省的), skin-deep (膚淺的),
light/heat-sensitive (對光/熱敏感的), smoke-free (無煙害的), life-long (終生的), year-end (年終的), 
ice-cold (冰冷的)
數量
單位詞
10. 數字-名詞 two-year-old (boy), two-day weekend (週休二日), 100-meter sprint (百米短跑), 
a 5-hour marathon (5小時長跑), a 101-story/storied high rise (101層高樓)
11. 數字-名詞 ed 肢體、層:one-eyed (獨眼的), three-legged (3條腿的), three-tiered cake (3層的)
   
2. 其它舉例
   
 

give-and-take (容忍)/hide-and-seek (捉迷藏) 87聯考, rip-off (敲詐), stand-off (對峙), warm-up (熱身), hold-up (搶劫), check-up (健檢), runner-up (亞軍), pile-up (連環車禍), must-have (必備品), pros-and-cons (正反意見), ups-and-downs (起伏)。


pent-up (壓抑的), run-down (破舊的), on-going (持續的), self-addressed (回郵的), up-to-date (最新的), second-to-none (不落人後), gentleman-like (紳士般的), deaf-blind (盲啞的), well-to-do (富有的), water-proof/resistant (防水的), round-the-clock (24小時的) 。
註:亦可當副詞者如face-to-face (面對面), one-on-one (一對一), side-by-side (共同)。

資料來源: 內湖高中

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常見錯誤之(一)可數名詞未使用「單數形」或「複數形」

 

 

單數表示法

1.

使用「不定冠詞a(n)」表單數:

例:我的理想是當工程師。
My ideal job is to be
 engineer.(X) 
My ideal job is to be
 an engineer (O)

說明:我當工程師是單數含意,不可無單數形變化,需加不定冠詞a(n)

 

 

2.

「定冠詞the+ 可數單數名詞 (詳見Unit 2.「特指」、「通稱/泛指」用法)

例:誰是這裡的老版?
Who is
 boss here?(X) 
Who is
 the boss (O)

說明:此句boss老板指此地負責人,無複數含意,使用the + 單數名詞表「特指」。

 

 

3.

使用「人稱代名詞所有格」表單數:

例:我聽從老師所說的一切。
I follow whatever
 teacher tells me.(X) 
I follow whatever
 my teacher tells me.(O)

說明:名詞teacher若是「單數」含意,必需加所有格如my等。(若是「複數」→ my teachers

 

 

 

複數形表示法

(1) 規則--變化字尾+ (e)s(2) 不規則--變化母音,例:analysis  /analyses 

例:我弟弟和我就讀不同的學校。
My brother and I go to different
 school.(X) 
My brother and I go to different
 schools(O)

說明:說明:(兩所)不同的學校是複數含意,school之複數屬規則變化字尾 + s

 

 

 

常見錯誤之(二)可數與不可數「用法」或「字形」的混淆

 

 

1.

「可數用法」與「不可數用法」語意不同者--例如:

不可數單數

work工作

business生意;事務

damage損害

man人類

canvas帆布

可數複數

works作品

businesses企業;商店

damages賠償金

men人們

cavases畫布

 

 

 

2.

不可數名詞恆無複數字形者

例:information (資訊), advice (建議), stuff (東西), furniture (家俱), evidence (證據), luggage/baggage (行李), 
staff/crew (
員工), mankind/humankind (人類), news, 學科名稱如politics (政治學) 等。

(註:不可數名詞以「單位」計算數量,詳見Unit 。)

 

 

3.

單複數字形相同者

例:means, species (種類), statistics (統計), Chinese, 集合名詞如family (指家人時), class (指班級學生時), 
company (
指公司成員時) 等。

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

「可數名詞」非指可數物體時,當「不可數名詞」用,如下數例。

 

 

 

1.

方法/工具 by + N. 

1. Our customer orders (訂單) are handled (處理) by computer, not by hand. (並非用手)
2. We can transfer savings (轉帳) between banks by telephone. (以電話)


註:by有所指”--如表某一/某些、特指”--則所接之名詞變化單複數,或用冠詞、所有格等。

1. Don’t judge (判斷) them by their appearance(s). (指他們那些人的外表)
2. You can come in by the main road. (特指那條大路)

 

 

2.

平行結構片語 (對稱、對等)

1. Sue and I are sister and brother. (兄妹/姐弟--表關係)
2. Plants cannot move from place to place. (到處=from one place to another

 

 

3.

表功能,或行為、方式等 (非指涉事物)

go to school/bed/hospital (就學//); be in bed (臥病), at school, keep house (管家), be sent to prison/be put in jail (入獄); go/be on holiday (渡假), stand in line (排隊) 等。

註:生活中一般人所熟悉的地方/場所使用the來指稱,詳見Unit 2.1

 

 

4.

表頭銜名稱 (與動詞如appoint--指定, elect--選舉, declare--宣布等連用)

1. John is (the) captain of the team. (隊長) 
2. Schwarzenegger was elected (as/to be) governor of California. (州長)

 

 

5.

格言、諺語、習慣語

1. Dog does not eat dog. (虎毒不食子。)
2. Never cry wolf! (別撒謊!)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

「不可數名詞」表種類時,當「可數名詞」用。(常是因為加了形容詞

 

 

 

1.

a) Education should be free. (教育--抽象不可數N. 
b)
 A good education is expensive. (表一種優質的教育)


2.

a) Out of superstition, she never has 13 people sitting at a table. (迷信--抽象不可數N. 
b) Her irrational (
非理性) belief is just one example of superstitions. (表多種迷信之一)

 

 

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強調比較級 (以對稱、對比方式強調):

the + 比較級…, the + 比較級 (愈…,愈...)

比較級詞組移至句首的強調位置後,貫上定冠詞the,其餘主詞、動詞詞序未變。


(1) 受詞移位: 強調「不定數量詞比較級 + 名詞」
例:You read more books and you'll gain more knowledge. (一般句型)
  → The more books you read, the more knowledge you'll gain. (書讀越多,知識獲得越多。)

(2) 形容詞移位: 強調「形容詞比較級」
例:You read more books and you'll be wiser. (一般句型)
  → The more books you read, the wiser you'll be. (書讀越多,越聰明。)

(3) 副詞移位: 強調「副詞比較級」
例:If we work out more often,we'll stay fit more easily. (一般句型)
  → The more often we work out, the more easily we'll stay fit. (越常運動,越容易保持健美。)


2. 讓步子句 as/though 的強調功能

N./Adj./Adv + as (或though) + S1 + V1…, S2 +V2… (although 不用於本強調句型。)


(1) 名詞移位:
例:Though she is a boss, she works as hard as her staff.
  → A Boss as/though she is, she works as hard as her staff. (被強調之名詞無冠詞a(n), the。)

(2) 形容詞移位:
例:Though/Although she is bossy, she is respected by her staff.
  → Bossy as/though/although she is, she is respected by her staff.

(3) 副詞移位:
例:Though she loves her old car very much, she has to sell it and buy a new one.
→ Much as/though she loves her old car, she has to sell it and buy a new one.

註:形容詞、副詞亦常於句首再加一個as:As popular as he is, he never puts on airs.

 


資料來源:英文學習平台

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主詞與動詞局部倒裝 (only, 否定副詞類常考!)

 

類別

例句

副詞類
Only
置於句首強調時

1) I began to see the results of my work only after a year. (介詞片語)
 → Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work.
2)
 The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains. (子句)
 → Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.

否定副詞
置於句首強調時

1) I am never late for school.  → Never am I late for school.
2)
 We not only lost money, but also wasted time.
 → Not only did we lose money, but also we wasted time.

否定副詞如 

(A)

never, seldom, rarely, little, hardly, scarcely, barely, neither, nor

(B)

含有nonot的片語如 no sooner…than (…, …), in no case/way/situation, by no means, under/in no circumstances, on no account/condition/consideration (決不), no longer/more (不再), not at all, not a bit, not in the least (一點也不), etc.

 

假設語氣
if
省略後

1) If I had had any idea, I would never have left her alone. 
  Had I had any idea, I would never have left her alone. 
2)
 If anyone should (萬一) ring, please take a message. 
  Should anyone ring, please take a message.

結果子句
So/Such
置於句首強調時

1) The attack was so sudden that we had no time to escape.
 → So sudden was the attack that we had no time to escape.
2)
 She made such a good meal that we ate it all up.
 → Such a good meal did she make that we ate it all up.

形容詞述語類
置於句首強調時
(
較適用be-動詞)

1) 比較級
2)
最高級
3)
原級

 

1) Students will be more attentive if teaching tasks involve their participation.
 → More attentive will students be if teaching tasks involve their participation.
2)
 Her friendly treatment towards me was most unbelievable.
 → Most unbelievable was his friendly treatment towards me.
3)
 You will be happy when everything is working out for you.
 → Happy will you be when everything is working out for you.

as/than-子句
(
非強制)

1) She traveled a lot more than/a great deal, as most of her friends did.
 → She traveled a lot more than/a great deal, as did most of her friends.

感歎句
(
用驚嘆號!)

1) Am I fed up!
2) How beautiful
 the flowers are! → How beautiful are the flowers!

 

 

 

註:1) Not only George but also his friends are buying the house.  (對等連接主詞,並非對等連接動詞。)
  2) He has a kind heart.  So do you.  (你也是!)  cf. So he does.  (他的確是!--非倒裝句so表強調。)
  3) 形容詞亦可能全句倒裝:The sound of the bell grew faint.  → Faint grew the sound of the bell.

 

 

 

 

全句頭尾倒裝  (副詞類較常考!)

 

類別

例句

副詞類
(
移至句首強調時)

1) 場所副詞
2)
介副詞
3)
介詞片語

 

1) An old building is on the corner. 
 → On the corner (there) is an old building.
2)
 The consumer walked away unhappily.
 → Away walked the consumer, unhappily.
3) 
The guests came after the receptionist.
 → After the receptionist came the guests.

形容詞述語類
(
移至句首強調時)
分詞 V-ing/V-p.p.

1) Blogs on the Internet are taking off in Taiwan.
 → Taking off in Taiwan are blogs on the Internet.
2)
 The popular movie star was followed by a crowd of journalists.
 → Followed by a crowd of journalists was the popular movie star.

直接引述
(
非強制)

1) “I've had enough,” John said.
 → “I've had enough,” said John. 
2) “Who's paying?”
 shouted the fat man in the corner.
直接引述動詞如say, suggest, shout, answer, scream, yell, utter, etc.

 

註:代名詞的限制 → 人稱代名詞不與動詞倒裝。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here is your key.
Here
 it is.
Here is
 it.

(o)
(o)
(x)

 

 

Up comes a man. 
Up
 he comes.
Up comes
 he.

(o)
(o)
(x)

 

 

Out of the darkness came a man in black.
Out of the darkness
 he came.
Out of the darkness came
 he.

(o)
(o)
(x)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


資料來源:英文學習平台

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1. 分裂句 (Cleft Sentence):It is/was + 被強調成分 + that…

例:Mary married John in America yesterday. (未強調)


A) 強調主詞 Mary → 分裂出主詞 Mary → 套入It is ...that之間。
→ It was Mary that/who married John in America yesterday. (and not Jean.)
  (是 Mary 昨天在美國與 John 結婚。/ 昨天在美國與 John 結婚的是 Mary。)

B) 強調受詞 John → 分裂出受詞 John → 套入It is ...that之間。
→ It was John that/who(m) Marry married in America yesterday. (and not Tom.)
  (昨天 Mary 在美國所嫁的人是 John。)

C) 強調地點 in America → 分裂出地點副詞 in America → 套入It is ...that之間。
→ It was in America that Mary married John yesterday. (and not in Taiwan.)
  ( Mary 昨天與 John 結婚的地方是在美國。/ Mary 昨天與 John 是在美國結婚的。)

D) 強調時間 yesterday → 分裂出時間副詞 yesterday → 套入It is ...that之間。
→ It was yesterday that Mary married John in America. (and not today.)
  (是 昨天 Mary 在美國與 John 結婚。/ Mary 是昨天在美國與 John 結婚的。)


2. 準分裂句 (Pseudo-cleft Sentence):What…is/was +…被強調成分… (what視為單數)


例1. My right hand hurts. (未強調)

A) 強調主詞 My right hand → 分離套入句型 What ...is...
→ What hurts is my right hand.

例2. He likes Mary's style. (未強調)

B) 強調受詞 Mary's style → 分離套入句型What ...is...
→ What he likes is Mary's style.

例3. He lingered around after the movie finished. (未強調)

C) 強調動詞 linger → 分離套入句型What S + V (eg, do) … was (to) ...
→ What he did after the movie finished was (to) linger around.
= All (that) he did after the movie finished was (to) linger around. (that當受詞才可省)

 

 

資料來源:英文學習平台

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if-假設語氣


1. 針對現在事件的假設語氣 (現在假設法) (即非現在事實--與現在事實相反)
句型: If ...were/V-p.t. ..., ...would/might/could/should + 原形V.... (較單純動詞變化)

例1. If I were you, I would be satisfied. (In fact, I am not you.)
例2. If I had money on me, I would take this expensive one.
  (In fact, I don't have money with me, so I can't take this expensive one.)


2. 針對過去事件的假設語氣 (過去假設法) (即非過去事實--與過去事實相反)
句型: If ...had + P.P..., ...would/might/could/should + have + V-p.p. .... (完成式動詞變化)

例:If I had been with them, the children wouldn't have been injured.

3. 表對未來之推測、假設 (未來假設法)

A) should/happen to表“萬一/如果碰巧”:
句型:If ...should/happen to +原形V..., ...will(would)/may(might)/can(could)/should +原形V

例:If there should be strikes, the company will/would lay off the strikers.


B) were to 表“如果/假使”→ are/is to的假設語氣用法:
句型:If ...were to..., ...would/should/might/could+ 原形V… (如果會...)

例:That's a good idea, but suppose mom were to find out.

註:if-條件句「如果,假如」-- 表事件之條件或可能性。(動詞變化:直說法--時式正常變化)

例1. If it rains heavily, the river nearby floods/will blood. (如果大雨,河流就淹水。)→ 條件,結果。  
例2. If she told you that, she was lying. (果真她這麼告訴你,她就是在撒謊。)→ 過去可能的事實。



其它「假設語氣」用法綜合整理


1. wish + S + 假設語氣V… (但願,希望) (87推甄)

* 對現在假設—例:I wish I lived near my school. (但願我住在學校附近。)
* 對過去假設—例:I wish I had not said that. (但願我沒說過那句話。)


2. without/but for + 名詞, S + 假設語氣V… (要不是,若無)

* 對現在假設—例:Without you, my life would be dull. (如果沒有你,我的生活就很悶。)
* 對過去假設—例:But for your help, I wouldn't have found this job. (要不是 ~,我找不到 ~)


3. as if + S + 假設語氣V… (彷彿,好像)

* 對現在假設—例:The young man walks as if he were an old man. (這年輕人走路像個老頭。)
* 對過去假設—例:The white-faced boy looks as if he had seen a ghost. (仿彿看見鬼了)
註:直說法—例:He looks as if he hasn't slept all night. (他看起來整晚沒睡—他目前的確很疲倦。)
  其它可有假設語氣與直說法之用詞—1) even if ~ (即使~) 2) what if ~ (如果 ~ 那怎麼辦?)

4. If only + S + 假設語氣V… (真希望,但願) 註: only if (唯有如果/當...)

* 對現在假設—例:If only I had a nice job. (但願我目前有份好工作。)
* 對過去假設—例:If only I hadn't bought this. (我真是希望沒買這個東西。)


5. It is (high/about) time (that) + S + 假設語氣V… (該是做 ~ 事的時候了)

* 對現在提出虛擬—例:It's time that you had a haircut. (你該理髮了。)


6. lest + S + (should) + 原形V… (以防/免 ~ )

* 對未來的臆測—例:Remind me later lest I (should) forget. (稍後提醒我,以免我忘記。)



「直說法」綜合整理 (非假設語氣,表條件)


1.

(supposing/suppose (that) /on (the) condition that /in the event that/註:in the event of + n.) + S + V … (假如 = if)

例:I will take this on the condition that you reduce its price. (如果你降價,我就買這件。)


2.

given that + 子句 (如果考慮到) 註:given + 名詞 --(90學測)

例:Given that he is new here, I won't be hard on him. (考量到他剛來,我不會嚴厲對待他。)


3.

in case + 子句 (句首--如果;句中--以防) 註:in case of + n.

例:Take an umbrella in case it rains/should rain. (帶把傘去,以防下雨。)

4.

for fear that + 子句… (以免/避免 ~,擔心 ~ ) 註:for fear of + n.

例:I daren't go there for fear that the dog will bark at me. (我不敢去那兒,擔心狗對我吠。)

 

 

資料來源:英文學習平台

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當主詞/受詞補語 → 表與「動詞」齊頭並進,動作者同時附帶之狀態。


句型:S + come/go/stand/lie/remain/live/fly等不及物動詞 + S.C. (V-ing/V-p.p.) ...

例1. The dog comes wagging its tail. (搖著尾巴來)
   解析:句子動詞come同時附帶著進行中的wagging,修飾主詞the dog 來的狀態。
例2. We live surrounded by noise. (生活在被噪音圍繞當中)
   解析:句子動詞live同時附帶著被動的surrounded,修飾主詞we 居住的狀態。


名前修飾—成分單純的分詞單字 + 名詞。 (94指考,93學測/指考,92學測,91指考。)

例1. A rolling stone gathers no moss. (滾動的石頭--進行含意)
例2. He seems like a changed person. (已改變的人--完成含意)
例3. I'm afraid that this is a stolen car. (贓車--被動含意)




常用片語 (以下1, 2, 3亦常接by--被…)


1. be + surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished (驚訝)/frightened (驚嚇) + at (對於~感到~)
例:We were frighted at/by the appearance of the police car. (對於警車的出現感到驚嚇。)
2. be + upset/depressed (沮喪), embarrassed (尷尬), confused/puzzled (困惑) + about (對於~感到~)
例:He is depressed about/by (at/over) his exam results. (他對考試成績感到沮喪。)
3. be + impressed (印象), frustrated (沮喪), fascinated/enchanted (著迷), + with (對於~感到~)
例:We were very impressed with/by your new design. (我們對於你的新設計印象深刻。)
4. be + pleased (喜悅/滿意), satisfied (滿意) + with (對於~感到~)
例:You seem to be very satisfied/pleased with your new job. (你似乎對於新工作感到很滿意。)
5. be + scared (驚嚇), stunned (訝異) exhausted (疲倦) + by (被~)
例:I am exhausted by overwork. (我因過度工作而疲憊。)
6. be + interested (興趣), absorbed (專心於) + in (在~方面感到~)
例:All my family are interested in singing. (我家人對歌唱皆感興趣。)
7. be + 現在分詞如interesting (有趣的), appealing (吸引的) + to (令人覺得~的)
例:Singing is interesting to all my family. (歌唱令我全家人都感興趣。)
8. be annoyed (惱怒), disappointed (失望) with +人/at +事 (對~人/事感到~)
例:With voice mail, we won't be annoyed at missed calls. (有了語音信箱,就不苦惱於未接來電。)




名後修飾—名詞 + 分詞片語 (95/94學測,93/92指考,91學測,90/89聯考,86/84/83推甄)


1. 主動含意: N + 現在分詞V-ing片語 (N 為 V主事者/動作者。)
例:The rain flooding the roads made our journey more difficult.
   (淹沒道路 的 水災 使我們的旅行更困難。)

2. 被動含意: N + 過去分詞V-p.p. 片語 (N 為 V 受事者/接受者。)
例:The roads covered by snow made our journey impossible.
   (被雪覆蓋 的 道路 使我們不可能旅行。)


句型衍生:

(1) 關係子句主詞關代詞省略 → (2) 動詞變分詞,形成分詞片語 (當形容詞)。

1. 主動含意: 轉為現在分詞 V-ing 片語。 (註:符號"∮"表示「省略」後的遺跡。)
例: The rain [which flooded the roads] made our journey more difficult. (主動語態)
  → The rain [flooding the roads] made our journey more difficult. (現在分詞)
  解析: (1) 主詞關代省略後,
      (2) 動詞變分詞:因先行詞the rain是動詞flood (淹水) 的動作者 → 主動含意用V-ing。
        所形成的現在分詞片語 flooding the roads當形容詞,修飾先行詞the rain。

2. 被動含意: 轉為過去分詞 p.p. 片語。
例: The roads [ which were covered by snow] made our journey impossible. (被動語態)
  → The roads [being covered by snow] made our journey impossible.
  → The roads [covered by snow] made our journey impossible. (過去分詞)
   解析: (1) 主詞關代詞省略後,
       (2) 動詞變分詞:先行詞the roads是動詞cover覆蓋的接受者 → 被動含意用V-p.p.
        (動詞變分詞或解釋為:were covered → being covered → being 通常再省略) 。
        所形成的過去分詞片語 covered by snow當形容詞,修飾先行詞 the roads。

分詞片語口訣:省略主詞關代、動詞變分詞--主動-ing、被動-p.p.

 

 

資料來源:英文學習平台

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分詞構句:V-ing/V-p.p…, S + V… (以分詞開始的片語…, 主要子句) (或前後互換)


口訣:省略 (連接詞) 主詞,動詞變分詞--主動 → ing、被動 → p.p.! (主詞相同者)

例1. When most people (S1) talk about movies, they (S2) think of big explosions.

→ When talking about movies, most people think of big explosions. 結果(1)
Talking about movies, most people think of big explosions. 結果(2)
(談論到電影時,大多數人想到的是大爆破。)

主詞most people是動詞talk about 的動作者,
主動含意 → 現在分詞talking about。


步驟解析

(A) 省略主詞:若S1 = S2 → 省略附屬子句主詞S1 (主要子句以明確的most people當主詞) 。
(B) 動詞變分詞--主動用V-ing:talk about為主動用法 → 變為現在分詞talking about → 結果(1)。
(C) 附屬連接詞when 亦可省略 → 結果(2)。


例2. When the soldiers (S1) are threatened, they (S2) will fire without warning.
→ When being threatened, the soldiers will fire without warning. 結果(1)
→ Threatened, the soldiers will fire without warning. 結果(2)
(被威脅時,士兵將會無預警地開火。)

主詞the soldiers 是動詞threaten 的接受者(被~),
被動含意 → 過去分詞 threatened 。

步驟解析

(A) 省略主詞:若S1 = S2 → 省略附屬子句主詞S1 (主要子句以明確的the soldiers當主詞)。
(B) 動詞變分詞--被動用V-p.p.:are threatened為被動用法 → 變為過去分詞 threatened → 結果(1)。
(C) 附屬連接詞when亦可省略 → 結果(2)。


註:
1) 完成式分詞構句 → Having +V-p.p.:已經 ~ (表時間相對較早之事件)
2) 否定分詞構句 → Not +V-ing/V-p.p.;Not having+ V-p.p./Having not + V-p.p.。
3) 附屬連接詞+S+be+形容詞 → 可省略「S+be」。例:If (it is) possible, we'll take a vacation.
4) be + 形容詞分詞構句 → (being) + 形容詞。例:(Being) Strong enough, he lifts heavy objects easily.
5) 分詞構句中,附屬連接詞不可省略者如unless (除非), once (一旦), as (如同), even if/though (即使), as if (彷彿/好像),
  until (直到) 等。

 



獨立分詞構句— S1 + V1-ing/V1-pp…, S2 + V2… (或前後互換)


口訣:省略連接詞,動詞變分詞--主動 → ing、被動 → p.p.! (S1 =/= S2主詞不同)

例1. If time (S1) permits, we (S2) will stop off in Hong Kong to do some shopping.
→ Time permitting, we will stop off in Hong Kong to do some shopping.

因為S1=\=S2,所以主詞S1 (time) 與S2 (we) 需各自獨立,都不可省略。
(A) 省略連接詞:刪除附屬連接詞if。
(B) 動詞變分詞--主動用V-ing:permits為主動用法 → 變為現在分詞 permitting。


例2. There (S1) were fireworks of all sorts, and each (S2) was brightly colored.
→ There were fireworks of all sorts, each being brightly colored.
→ There were fireworks of all sorts, each brightly colored.

因為S1=\=S2,所以主詞S1 (there) 與 S2 (each) 需各自獨立,都不可省略。
(A) 省略連接詞:刪除對等連接詞 and,對等關係轉為附屬關係。
(B) 動詞變分詞--被動用V-p.p.: was colored為被動用法 → 變為過去分詞 being colored。

 


狀態with--與分詞連用,表同時附帶的狀態。


基本結構:(With) + O + V-ing/V-p.p. …, S + V… (with 可省略而形成獨立分詞構句)

例1. A little girl is walking into the mall, (with) her hand tugging on (拉著) her mother's skirt.
(有位小女孩正走進購物中心,手拉著母親的裙子。)
例2. He took a break on the couch, (with) his eyes closed.
(他在沙發上休息,眼睛閉著。)

with + N + 形容詞/介詞片語 (當受詞補語OC)
1) He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth.
2) She stood staring, (with) her eyes wide open.

 


資料來源:英文學習平台

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現在要開始一系列的時態專題囉!
首先要介紹的就是: 現在進行式
它的基本句型為: 主詞 + am / are / is + Ving
用來指此刻正在做的事, 或目前正在做的事, 甚至有時可用來當未來式
這裡有習題可供下載練習
檔名為 present progressive
例: I am watching TV. (我正在看電視) 指此刻在做的事
She is traveling in New York on business this month. (她這個月在紐約出差) 指目前的狀況
We are going to the movies tomorrow. (我們明天要去看電影) 當作未來式用
否定句時, 用: 主詞 + am not / are not / is not + Ving (are not = aren’t, is not = isn’t, 但 am not 不能縮寫)
Yes / No 疑問句時, 用: Am / Are / Is + 主詞 + Ving?
疑問詞的疑問句時, 用 What / Where / When / Who / Why / How ...+ am / are / is + 主詞 + Ving?
另外要注意的是, 結尾為 e 的動詞, 要先把 e 去掉再加 ing
如: taking, having, dancing
最後一音節的結尾為: 子音 + 母音 + 子音 的組合時, 要重複字尾字母再加 ing
如: hitting, running, stopping, transferring
但是結尾是 y 的動詞則沒有任何特殊改變, 直接加 ing 即可
(記住: 只有去 y 加 ied 或 ies, 沒有去 y 加 ing 這回事!)
如: studying, staying, playing
例: I am wearing a T-shirt.
I am not wearing a T-shirt.
You are having dinner.
You are not having dinner.
Are you having dinner?
What are you having for dinner?
He is dancing with his girlfriend.
He is not dancing with his girlfriend.
Is he dancing with his girlfriend?
Who is he dancing with?
We are playing a game.
We are not playing a game.
Are we playing a game?
What game are we playing?
They are watching TV.
They are not watching TV.
Are they watching TV?
What are they watching?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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現在簡單式用來表示常態, 習慣或不變的原理
現在簡單式基本句型就只有: 主詞 + 現在式動詞
但注意若主詞為第三人稱單數(如 he, she, it, my father, John 等)時, 且為肯定句時動詞就要加 s 或 es
(加 es 的是該動詞結尾為 s, z, ch, sh, x 等, 如 kisses, buzzes, watches, washes)
例: I get up at seven every morning.
He watches TV until midnight.
My father drives to work every day.
否定句時, 句型為: 主詞 + don’t / doesn’t (第三人稱單數用) + 原形動詞 (記得此時動詞不能再加 s 或 es 了)
例: I don’t drink coffee.
He doesn’t live in Taipei.
We don’t like dogs.
Jenny doesn’t work there.
Yes / No 疑問句的句型為: Do / Does + 主詞 + 原形動詞?
例: Do you have a car?
Does your sister live in Taipei?
Do they eat Chinese food?
疑問詞問句的句型為: 疑問詞 What / Where / Who / When / Why / How + do / does + 主詞 + 原形動詞?
例: What kind of movies do you like?
Where does Bob work?
How do they go to school?
注意在現在簡單式裡, 一定會有一般動詞 have, live, work…等, 所以是不可能會有 be 動詞 am / are / is 的
He is not come from Taipei. (X)
He is from Taipei. = He comes from Taipei. (O)
下面是基本變化:
I have a sister.
I don’t have a sister.
You have a sister.
You don’t have a sister.
Do you have a sister?
How many sisters do you have?
He has a brother.
He doesn’t have a brother.
Does he have a brother?
How many brothers does he have?
Gina lives with her parents.
Gina doesn’t live with her parents.
Does Gina live with her parents?
Who does Gina live with?
We take a bus to work.
We don’t take a bus to work.
Do we know the answer?
What do we know?
They enjoy cooking at home.
They don’t enjoy cooking at home.
Do they enjoy cooking at home?
What do they enjoy doing?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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這個時態好像令許多人困惑和害怕
現在完成式的基本句型為: 主詞 + have / has + 過去分詞 (動詞第三態, 又稱 p.p.) (第三人稱單數的主詞用 has )
否定句: 主詞 + haven’t / hasn’t + p.p.
疑問句: Have / Has + 主詞 + p.p.?
或 疑問詞(What / Where / Who / How long…) + have / has + 主詞 + p.p.?
p.p. 是動詞第三態, 規則動詞就是和過去式一樣加 ed , 像 watched, learned, studied
不規則動詞拚法會變, 像 go 就變成 gone, know 變成 known 等
很多課本最後會有附錄, 字典也會有, 不知道的字可以去查
現在完成式用在以下三種情況:
(1) 從以前持續到現在的動作或狀態 (重點是到現在還有或還是這樣; 若現在沒有, 只有以前用, 就會用過去簡單式)
例: I have worked here for two years. 我已經在這裡工作兩年
He has been busy in the past three days. 他過去三天裡(到現在為止)一直都很忙
(2) 此生到目前為止的經驗
例: Have you (ever) been to France? 你去過法國嗎?
Jack has never gone ice-skating. Jack 從來沒溜過冰
(3) 到此刻為止”已經...”, “還沒...” (否定句)
例: I have (already) had dinner. 我已經吃過飯了
We haven’t seen that movie (yet). 我們還沒看過那部電影
其他注意事項:
不論是肯定, 否定, 疑問句都要用過去分詞, 不能用原形動詞
ever (曾經) 只能用在疑問句; 肯定句的”已經”用 already 這個字, 但可以省略, 因為現在完成式本身就已經是”已經...”的意思了
yet 用在否定句表示”還沒...”, 用在疑問句表示”...了沒?” 但也可以省略, 要用的話就放句尾
現在完成式的句子後面常會用 for / since + 時間, 表示持續多久(for) 或從何時開始(since)
for 後面要接一段時間的長度, 如 two weeks, three years
since 接開始的時間起點, 如 1995, last week, high school, I was 10 (years old)
have / has been to… 是”去過...地方”, 而 have / has gone to… 是”出發前往...了”
以下是基本句型變化:
I have been to the U.S.
I have never been to the U.S.
You have seen that movie.
You haven’t seen that movie.
Have you seen that movie?
What movie have you seen?
She has lived here for ten years.
She hasn’t lived here for ten years.
Has she lived here for ten years?
How long has she lived here?
Henry has bought a house. (buy 的過去分詞)
Henry hasn’t bought a house.
Has Henry bought a house?
What has Henry bought?
We have waited for an hour. (這樣說就表示還在等)
We haven’t waited for an hour.
Have we waited for an hour?
How long have we waited?
They have known each other since college. 他們從大學時代就認識了
They haven’t known each other since college.
Have they known each other since college?
How long have they known each other?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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這個時態好像令許多人困惑和害怕
但說穿了真的沒什麼...
今天 Sammy 老師就要告訴大家一個秘密, 那就是...
其實”現在完成進行式”和”現在完成式”在大部份時候都是通用的!
所以啦, 其實你只要把現在完成式學好了, 現在完成進行式不會也沒什麼大不了
因為大部份時候, 它只是讓原本該用現在完成式的句子多了一些口語上的表達變化而已
現在完成進行式的基本句型為: 主詞 + have / has been Ving (第三人稱單數的主詞用 has )
它和現在完成式的第一種用途一樣, 用在指從以前持續到現在的動作或狀態
像是現在完成式的: I have lived here for five years.
也可以用現在完成進行式: I have been living here for five years.
兩句的意思是一樣的
既然如此, 為何會有兩種不一樣的時態呢?
注意我一開始是說”大部份時候”哦!
有的時候, 現在完成和現在完成進行會有一點小小的差別
那一點小小的差別就在於, 說話的當時, 到底那件事情已經結束了, 還是仍正在進行中
比如說有人走進來, 看到你在講電話
你可能遮住話筒跟他說: I have been talking on the phone with my mother for an hour.
這樣用的是現在完成進行式, 表示說這句話的當時, 還在講電話
但是如果那人走進來時, 你正好把電話掛了
那麼用現在完成式(表示持續到此刻為止): I have talked on the phone with my mother for an hour.
或過去式(因為已結束了): I talked on the phone with my mother for an hour.
就會比較正確
另外, 不能用現在完成進行式的時候, 就是當動詞是無法用進行式的動詞的時候
像 like, want, have (當”擁有”的意思時; 若當”吃”就可以有進行式), hate, know, understand, stop, meet, begin, start, leave, arrive, ... 等
所以像 I have known him since high school.
就不能用現在完成進行式 I have been knowing him since high school.
She has had that car for three years.
也不能說 She has been having that car for three years.
還有一種不能用現在完成進行式來取代現在完成式的狀況
就是使用現在完成式的第二和第三種情況—-
表達此生到目前為止的經驗, 或到此刻為止”已經...”或”還沒...”
像 We have never visited Taipei 101. 就不能用現在完成進行式
Jack has called me. 也不能
I have (already) had dinner. 還是不能
總之, 只有在指從之前持續到現在的事情時, 現在完成式和現在完成進行式才可以通用哦!
但還是要注意那個動詞是不是能用進行式
以下就是現在完成進行式的基本句型變化:
I have been working here since 2002. (= I have worked here since 2002.)
I haven’t been working here since 2002.
You have been waiting for an hour. (= You have waited for an hour.)
You haven’t been waiting for an hour.
Have you been waiting for an hour?
How long have you been waiting?
Ben has been watching TV all night. (= Ben has watched TV all night.)
Ben hasn’t been watching TV all night.
Has Ben been watching TV all night?
What has Ben been doing all night?
We have been talking on the phone since two o’clock. (= We have talked…)
We haven’t been talking on the phone since two o’clock.
Have we been talking on the phone since two o’clock?
How long have we been talking on the phone?
Rita and Jim have been dating for over a year. (= Rita and Jim have dated…)
Rita and Jim haven’t been dating for over a year.
Have Rita and Jim been dating for two years?
How long have Rita and Jim been dating?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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過去簡單式顧名思義就是指發生在過去的時間, 且現在已經沒有在做了的事情
(如果現在還有就要用現在完成式囉)
習題請自行下載:
檔名為 Simple Past
過去簡單式的句型不用管人稱的問題
所有的人在肯定句時都是: 主詞 + 過去式一般動詞
例: I took the bus to work this morning.
否定句時是: 主詞 + didn’t + 原形動詞
例: My mother didn’t make dinner.
疑問句時: Did + 主詞 + 原形動詞?
疑問詞(What, When…) + did + 主詞 + 原形動詞?
例: Did you watch TV?
Where did they go?
一般動詞的過去式可分為兩類
一種叫規則動詞, 過去式時加 ed (但若字尾為子音+y 時則去 y 加 ied )
另一種叫不規則動詞, 過去式時整個拚法會不同
像 go 變成 went, run 變成 ran 等
若不確定時可以去查字典
另外要注意的是
過去簡單式的句子不一定都會說出時間
但只要用的是過去簡單式, 就一定是指發生在過去, 已結束了的事
所以 Where do you live? 問的是現在住哪裡
而 Where did you live? 問的就是以前(或當時)住哪裡
英文的方便處就在於可以從時態了解說話者指的到底是何時的事
以下是基本句型變化:
I ate a lot of rice.
I didn’t eat a lot of rice.
You lost the game.
You didn’t lose the game.
Did you lose the game?
How did you lose the game?
She heard the news.
She didn’t hear the news.
Did she hear the news?
What did she hear?
Raymond chose a different color.
Raymond didn’t choose a different color.
Did Raymond choose a different color?
What color did Raymond choose?
We liked that movie.
We didn’t like that movie.
Did we like that movie?
Why did we like that movie?
Mr. and Mrs. Sherman saw the accident.
Mr. and Mrs. Sherman didn’t see the accident.
Did Mr. and Mrs. Sherman see the accident?
What did Mr. and Mrs. Sherman see?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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各位如果懂現在進行式的話
其實過去進行式就也很好懂
過去進行式指的是在過去某個明確的時間點”正在”做的事
但前提是這個時間點必須很明確
比如你可以說: 昨天早上九點時我正在...
或: 你昨天打電話來的時候我正在...
但像: “昨天我正在... ” 這種句子就連在中文裡都不通了
因為昨天所包含的時間範圍太籠統了
但若是說: 昨天我正在看電視時, 她打電話來
”我正在看電視時” 就是個明確的時間點了
過去進行式的基本句型為: 主詞 + was / were + Ving
現在式的 be 動詞 am 和 is 到了過去式就變成 was
are 就變成 were
以下為句型變化範例:
I was taking a shower when you called.
I was not taking a shower when you called.
You were looking at that girl. (你當時正在看著那個女孩子) (指對話前面已提過的某個時候的”當時”)
You weren’t looking at that girl.
Were you looking at that girl?
Who were you looking at?
Dave was talking on the phone. (Dave 當時正在講電話)
Dave wasn’t talking on the phone.
Was Dave talking on the phone?
What was Dave doing? (Dave 當時在做什麼?)
My parents were watching TV.
My parents weren’t watching TV.
Were my parents watching TV?
What were my parents doing?
Jean and Henry were having lunch.
Jean and Henry weren’t having lunch.
Were Jean and Henry having lunch?
Where were Jean and Henry having lunch?

 

資料來源: Sammy

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